托福 Z托福 99 - Photography and the Pictorial Weeklies
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14.Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because the express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

In the 1840s a new type of publication-the pictorial news weekly-arose in Britain and the United states.
A.Mass production of the large, finely engraved illustrations that characterized pictorial weeklies was made possible by improvements in printing that made it easier and faster to create metal plates.
B.As photography gained in popularity throughout the work in the1840s, photographic portraits largely replaced portraits by woodblock engravers.
C.An increasing cultural concern for propriety and formality resulted in a shift away from the comic and imaginative illustrations of earlier decades.
D.Soon after the introduction of the daguerreotype in1839, early photographs were used to aid in the creation of illustrations for the weeklies.
E.Many of the leading illustrators of books and magazines in the1820s and 1830s later switched to comic journals because their high-spirited style did not suit the tone of the weeklies in later decades.
F.The new magazines attempted to achieve a look of documentary. realism by ensuring that their illustrations, especially those depicting scenes full of movement, closely resembled photographs.

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阅读原文 中文译文

In the 1840s a new type of publication arose in Britain and the United states: the pictorial weekly. Early pictorial weeklies were large-size news magazines that included plentiful illustrations, often based on woodblock engravings. These magazines owed their rise in part to the development of new and better printing technologies, such as electrotype, and electrical process that used a wax mold of a page, covered in graphite, to create a metal plate for printing. Other methods had previously been used to create plates for printing, but the electrotype process was easier, faster. and more precise. It enabled the pictorial weeklies to have a distinctive large format.

A second development of the early 1840s also influenced the nature of the illustrations in pictorial weeklies worldwide. If the arrival of the electrotype had made the high-volume printing of large, finely engraved illustrations possible, the emergence of photography gave many of these images a distinctive character. Soon after the daguerreotype(the earliest photographic process) had swept the world in the early 1840s, artists for pictorial weeklies began to use these early photographs as sources for their illustrations. The growing presence of woodblock-engraved portraits in the weeklies in the1840s and1850s arose directly from the popularity of portrait photographs, any of which could easily be mailed or shipped anywhere in the world.In1857 the artist Winnslow Homer in Boston copied onto a woodblock a daguerreotype portrait of a sea captain who lived in California thereby allowing the captain's likeness to reach publication in the companion without the subject's having been within a few thousand miles of the artist who had drawn him. Nothing quite like this had been possible so routinely or with such ease before the introduction of the daguerreotype in France in1839 and its rapid spread elsewhere.

Beyond supplying them with subjects, photography also influenced what some illustrators drew and how they drew it. As daguerreotype and, later, other photographic processes became increasingly common in the 1850s, illustrators began to imitate(as best they could in their linear medium) the distinctive tonality.-the blend of light and dark areas----of early photographs. This was not easy to do in woodblock engraving, but an interest in tonal effects is nevertheless evident in the work of many wood engravers. Their efforts lent an aura of documentary realism to a magazine's pages, at least for that part of the public that believed that a photograph captured more truth than an artist could. In a tour through the pages of European and American weeklies of the1840s and 1850s, one encounters in many illustrations the various pictorial qualities that were common in early products of the camera. The stillness of many illustrations for weeklies, such as views of the dawn. echoed the static character of subjects photographed before lenses were last enough to stop motion. It was surely to provide a welcome contrast to this stillness that some magazine illustrators drew scenes full of depicted movement, such as scenes of people ice-skating.

The influence of photography can also be felt in a shift in the general character of popular illustration that occurred during the early years of the pictorial weeklies. The move was one from humor to greater formality and dignity. Many of the leading book and magazine illustrators of the 1820s and 1830s had invested their work with an at essentially comic outlook. Even when they illustrated serious subjects, the artists of this generation trusted imagination at least as much as observation. Their work reflected the high-spirited mood of the times in England and America. This spirit never entirely disappeared from the work of many of the most respected illustrators in the succeeding decades. But with the growth of a culture of greater propriety beginning in the 1840s, humor became dislodged from a central to a marginal position. In the mainstream of the popular book and magazine illustration. Humorous writing survived nicely in comic journals, but those publications never had the prestige of serious publication.

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  • wx_6697
    觉得B C 意思一样,不知道选哪个
  • wx_5576
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  • wx_6697
    TPO30 passage 2 Q5我选的 D,不明白为啥不对?
  • wx_6697
    鑫哥,TPO6passage3Q5 答案是给错了吗?好多人都选A
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  • wx_6697
  • 芊儿
    为什么这道题不选c??a中的variety不是应该对应文中的differentiating 吗??求解!
  • wx_1000
  • 王金阁
  • 芊儿
    这道题的D选项不是和文中的better able to reproduce in open settings相对应么??
  • 风荨火
  • 以沫
    请问这个D 在哪里提现?为什么D错?
  • 芊儿
    第六题 的C选择为什么不对,感觉A是明显驳斥啊...
  • wx_6697
  • wx_6697
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    F选项的weather-related destruction在哪里体现了呢?原文最后一段的开头Among the costs里的costs是不是打错了?应该是coast?
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    小雨淅沥哗啦的下 去解答 去解答
  • 小雨淅沥哗啦的下
    小雨淅沥哗啦的下 去解答 去解答
  • 李浩然
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  • wx xxxxx
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  • wx_7695
    鑫哥,从哪里看出来这个masks 不是use呀,原文说了wear呀
  • haiyuqiao
    @鑫哥,这题the damage will continue 不应该对应前面的 the target species evolves resistance to it,然后As one pesticide replaces another,不应该是结束了time cycle 吗
  • wx_2065
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    鑫哥,B选项 cannot extended to earlier geological periods. 原文说的意思是后来的进化无法估计吧
  • wx_2163
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  • 100
    看到第一句话,以为是中心句就选了A... 为什么不能选A呢
  • 100
  • gu33
    请问下 这里选D的原因是 因为 evolutionary approach 对应着 原文的 Rates of evolution 嘛? 这里我选了C。。不是很懂 插入句和 D的关系 求解答
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    我是啦啦啦 去解答 去解答
  • haiyuqiao
  • wx_7060
    为什么选a 呢。我觉得a是细节。F哪错了?
  • wx_1105
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  • chaulaw
  • chaulaw
  • wx_6697
    鑫哥,这道题答案是不是错了,好多人选D 我也选的D求解答
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  • wx_6697
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  • wx_4185
    it is difficult to say how far they were intended to be portraits rather than generalized images 这句话怎么理解呢
  • 此楠楠
  • 此楠楠
    求鑫哥讲解下A选项。。。 Even though in error, Joly’s calculations clearly supported those geologists who insisted on an age for Earth far in excess of a few million years.